Mars Orbiter Mission is India’s first interplanetary mission to planet Mars with an orbiter craft designed to orbit Mars in an elliptical orbit.
One of the main objectives of the first Indian mission to Mars is to develop the technologies required for design, planning, management and operations of an interplanetary mission.
The mission consists of following three phases:
1. Geo Centric Phase
The spacecraft is injected into an Elliptic Parking Orbit by the launcher.
2. Helio Centric Phase
The spacecraft leaves Earth in a direction tangential to Earth’s orbit and encounters Mars tangentially to its orbit. The flight path is roughly one half of an ellipse around sun.
3. Martian Phase
The spacecraft arrives at the Mars Sphere of Influence (around 573473 km from the surface of Mars) in a hyperbolic trajectory.
ISRO plans to launch the Mars Orbiter Mission during the November 2013 window utilizing minimum energy transfer opportunity.
Mars Orbiter Mission carries five scientific payloads to observe Martian surface, atmosphere and exosphere extending up to 80,000 km for a detailed understanding of the evolution of that planet.Payloads consist of a camera, two spectrometers, a radiometer and a photometer. Together, they have a weight of about 15 kg.
|Mars Colour Camera (MCC)
|Thermal Infrared Imaging Spectrometer(TIS)
||Map surface composition and mineralogy
|Methane Sensor for Mars (MSM)
||Detection of Methane presence
|Mars Enospheric Neutral Composition Analyser (MENCA)
||Study of the neutral composition of Martian upper atmosphere
|Lyman Alpha Photometer (LAP)
||Study of Escape processes of Martian upper atmosphere through Deuterium/Hydrogen
RUN FOR A CAUSE
Running marathons empowers the power to realize one’s dreams and gives awareness of one’s abilities. Unlike other competitive sports, it gives you a personal experience. You become a Winner just participating and crossing the finish line.
10 years and running for The Standard Chartered Mumbai Marathon has turned into a movement. It is the country’s largest charity raising platform. The event has raised Rs 89.6 Crores for over 400 NGOs with the support of over 300 companies, thousands of fundraisers and lakhs of donors.
The Standard Chartered Mumbai Marathon 2013 has broken all previous records and set a new benchmark as a ‘giving’ platform. An amount of Rs. 18.61 crores has been collectively raised by 215 NGOs.
FUND RAISING THROUGH THE EVENT
At the Standard Chartered Mumbai Marathon 2014, you can choose the NGO/cause you wish to support. NGOs, representing various causes/issues, register themselves with the Event’s official Charity Partner, United Way of Mumbai. Some NGOs use this event as a platform to raise awareness for the work they undertake, and some to raise amounts for their charitable activities
Corporate Challenge is an ideal opportunity for companies to blend their CSR and HR objectives in a perfect harmony. Corporate Challenge is a group of select companies that contribute a minimum of Rs. 2.75 lakhs to a listed NGO of their choice and send a group of 15 employees to participate in the event or a minimum of Rs. 4 lakhs to a listed NGO of their choice and send a group of 25 employees to participate in the event.
The benevolent and selfless efforts of individuals, companies and NGOs during the 2014 edition of the Standard Chartered Mumbai Marathon will be recognized and awarded at the special awards press conference.
Antarctica is the highest continent because of the thickness of the ice sheet. The average elevation is 2,300 meters. The entire Antarctic ice sheet holds about 68% of the worlds freshwater. The coldest temperature ever recorded on Earth was in Antarctica at Russia’s Vostok Station that was 129.3˚F/89.6˚C.
Life in Antarctica
Antarctica has relatively few species of plants and animals, which is probably due to the fact that only 2% of the continent is free of ice. There are only two types of flowering plants. Most of the plant life in Antarctica is in the form of mosses and lichens. The penguins, seals, and other seabirds that might come to the continent and nearby islands are not native to the continent. Only two species of penguins, the Emperors and Adelies, are considered fully “Antarctic” because they spend significant time on the Antarctic continent.
1)ASOC’s mission is to protect and preserve this unique place, which is the heritage of all humankind.
2)Antarctica’s Gamburtsev Province Project (AGAP)
focuses on an invisible world in one of the most remote areas on Earth, just west of the Pole of Inaccessibility, in East Antarctica. the project will peel back the roughly 4 km-deep layer of 1.2 million-year-old glacial ice, to expose the mountains and lakes hidden below.
The science mission addresses four fundamental questions:
- How were the enigmatic Gamburtsev Subglacial Mountains formed?
- What role does topography play in the birth of the East Antarctic Ice Sheet?
- Where is the oldest climate record more likely to be found?
- What are the tectonic controls on subglacial lakes?
3)The Antarctic Meteorological Research Center (AMRC) and Automatic Weather Station (AWS) program are United States Antarctic Program (USAP) sister projects focusing on observational Antarctic meteorological research, providing real-time and archived meteorological data and observations, and supporting a network of automatic weather stations in Antarctica.
The industrial revolution which started in 1875 changed weather conditions. The industrialization and the increasing population density are forcing governments to consume more fossil fuels which is affecting the earth’s temperature. Its effects are gradually increasing every year.
Causes of Global Warming
The main cause of global warming is the sun and Carbon pollution. Planet is getting hotter, increasing the chances of weather disasters, drought and flood and hurting our health.
The intersection of the climate zone will destroy both the plantation and the animal life. Global warming also changes economical impacts. As natural disasters and contagious diseases will increase. Ice is melting and raise in sea level is also caused due to global warming.
It’s time to listen – and take action. There’s plenty we can do.
There are solutions. For starters, we can cut carbon pollution by reducing our dependence on fossil fuels and increasing our use of clean, renewable energy. And we can implement policies that help us prepare for flooding, drought, storms and other consequences of climate change.
20% of the energy consumed in the households are for heating the water. Using the solar energy will save from electric energy. If every family saves up 3 C for 24 hrs, it means saving up 11.100 gallons of petroleum.
Reserve renewable energy sources.
·Prefer public transportation.
·Use unleaded petroleum to decrease the air pollution.
·Choose ozone friendly deodorants to avoid the increase of greenhouse gases.
·Be conscious about the damages of using PVC material.
·Plant more trees to reduce the effects of erosion.
·Assist other people for a conscious society.
·Economise the consumption of electricity and water.
We must act now to spur the adoption of cleaner energy sources at home and abroad.
Operation Flood has created a national milk grid linking milk producers throughout India with consumers in over 700 towns and cities. white revolution was started by Dr. Verghese Kurien, also called the father of White Revolution. Program started by National Dairy Development Board (NDDB) in 1970. It made India the largest producer of the milk in the world.
- Increase milk production (“a flood of milk”)
- Augment rural incomes
- Fair prices for consumers
There were some distinctive features behind the success of ‘Operation Flood’. They were:
- Adopting new methods in the case of cattle in animal husbandry
- Changes in the composition of ingredients in different proportions
- Fixing of different costs according to standard of the wealth.
Amul formed in 1946, is a dairy cooperative in India. The White Revolution’s model dairy board was that of Amul.
Five cows cannot not send a family’s children to high school, but it could support their basic education and provide a supplemental income that changed their standards of living and circulated more money through the village.